Science

NASA’s Juno spacecraft sees moon’s otherworldly shadow on Jupiter


The shadow of Jupiter’s moon Io is forged on the cloud tops of the enormous planet on this view taken Sept. 12 by a digital camera on-board NASA’s Juno spacecraft. Kevin Gill, a software program engineer at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, created this mosaic from imagery taken by the JunoCam instrument. Credit score: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SwRI/MSSS/Kevin M. Gill

Recent pictures from NASA’s Juno spacecraft present an ethereal shadow forged by Jupiter’s volcanic moon Io on the planet’s swirling cloud tops.

The JunoCam imager captured views of Io’s distinct shadow on Jupiter throughout its most up-to-date passage close to the enormous planet, and expert novice picture analysts instantly set to work processing the info into dazzling renderings displaying a black circle amid Jupiter’s churning clouds.

Juno noticed the eclipse throughout a Sept. 12 encounter close to Jupiter, the 22nd such flyby since arriving in orbit across the photo voltaic system’s largest planet on July 4, 2016. The spacecraft carries devices to review Jupiter’s inner construction and climate, together with sensors to measure and map the planet’s sturdy magnetic discipline and gravity.

Io is probably the most volcanically energetic object within the photo voltaic system. Scientists have discovered tons of of volcanoes on Io, lots of them launching fountains of lava and gasoline tons of of miles above the moon’s floor.

NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft recorded this view of Jupiter’s moon Io, and one in all its erupting volcanoes, throughout an encounter with Jupiter in 2007 on the way in which to Pluto. Credit score: NASA/Johns Hopkins College Utilized Physics Laboratory/Southwest Analysis Institute/Goddard Area Flight Middle

The volcanoes are brought on by the immense pull of gravity from Jupiter, coupled with the weaker affect of gravity from Jupiter’s moon Europa. The gravitational forces tug on Io’s inside, shifting the rocky materials contained in the moon and producing warmth from friction.

The super-heated molten rock, or magma, erupts by way of quite a few geyser-like volcanoes, producing distinguished plumes that attain far above Io. Jupiter’s volcanic moon can also be lined in lava lakes, and has a skinny ambiance of sulfur dioxide, a gasoline emitted by volcanic eruptions.

NASA’s Juno spacecraft is circling Jupiter in an elliptical 53-day orbit, with a low level positioned roughly 2,100 miles (3,400 kilometers) above the planet’s cloud tops.

The Lockheed Martin-built spacecraft is wholesome, and all its devices are operational, mentioned Scott Bolton, the Juno mission’s principal investigator on the Southwest Analysis Institute in San Antonio, throughout a presentation final month to NASA’s Outer Planets Evaluation Group.

Juno’s devices have peered beneath Jupiter’s clouds to review the planet’s inner climate patterns.

Knowledge from Juno point out Jupiter has a fuzzy, ill-defined core that’s a lot larger than anticipated. The invention has led scientists to recommend an historic collision between a younger Jupiter and one other big protoplanet may clarify Jupiter’s fuzzy heart.

Juno has additionally imaged Jupiter’s auroras, and studied lightning within the planet’s hydrogen-rich ambiance.

The shadow of Jupiter’s moon Io is forged on the cloud tops of the enormous planet on this view taken Sept. 12 by a digital camera on-board NASA’s Juno spacecraft. Kevin Gill, a software program engineer at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, created this fisheye composite from imagery taken by the JunoCam instrument. Credit score: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SwRI/MSSS/Kevin M. Gill

NASA has authorized Juno’s mission to proceed by way of July 2021, however Juno may preserve working later into the 2020s. Juno is up for a mission extension overview in 2020.

Engineers have been anxious intense radiation round Jupiter may harm Juno’s electronics throughout repeated passages by way of the planet’s radiation belts. The spacecraft’s laptop and different delicate electronics are surrounded by a titanium compartment, or vault, to protect the parts from radiation.

Officers say they see no indicators of radiation harm to the spacecraft to date.

Juno was initially imagined to maneuver right into a decrease, 14-day orbit round Jupiter after arriving on the planet in 2016. However an issue with the craft’s most important engine prevented the orbit change from occurring.

The longer 53-day orbit requires extra time for Juno to acquire the mission’s required science information. The Juno mission was initially scheduled to finish in 2018 with a managed harmful plunge into Jupiter’s ambiance.

One good thing about the longer 53-day orbit is Juno receives a decrease radiation dose, assuaging among the issues about radiation harm to the spacecraft’s electronics.

In its present orbit, the Juno spacecraft would go by way of Jupiter’s shadow in November, robbing the orbiter of daylight for its power-generating photo voltaic arrays. Floor groups plan to make use of the spacecraft’s response management system thrusters Sept. 30 for a burn to barely modify its trajectory round Jupiter to keep away from the eclipse.

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Comply with Stephen Clark on Twitter: @StephenClark1.





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